Principles of Financial Accounting, Grade 12, BAT4M
This course introduces students to advanced accounting principles that will prepare them for postsecondary studies in business. Students will learn about financial statements for various forms of business ownership and how those statements are interpreted in making business decisions. This course expands students’ knowledge of sources of financing, further develops accounting methods for assets, and introduces accounting for partnerships and corporations. Pre-Requisite: BAF3M

Introduction to International Business, Grade 12, BBB4M
This course provides an overview of the importance of international business and trade in the global economy and explores the factors that influence success in international markets. Students will learn about the techniques and strategies associated with marketing, distribution, and managing international business effectively. This course prepares students for postsecondary programs in business, including international business, marketing, and management. Pre-Requisite: None

Leadership Fundamentals, Grade 12, BOH4M
This course focuses on the development of leadership skills used in managing a successful business. Students will analyze the role of a leader in business, with a focus on decision making, management of group dynamics, workplace stress and conflict, motivation of employees, and planning. Effective business communication skills, ethics, and social responsibility are also emphasized.
Pre-Requisite: Any University or college course in business or Canadian & World studies

Canadian & World Politics, Grade 12, CPW4U
This course examines Canadian and world politics from a variety of perspectives. Students will investigate the ways in which individuals, groups, and states work to influence domestic and world events, the role of political ideologies in national and international politics, and the dynamics of international cooperation and conflict resolution. Students will apply critical-thinking and communication skills to develop and support informed opinions about current political conflicts, events, and issues. Pre-Requisite: Any University or college course in English or Canadian & World studies or social science

Canadian & International Law, Grade 12, CLN4U
This course examines elements of Canadian and international law in social, political, and global contexts. Students will study the historical and philosophical sources of law and the principles and practices of international law and will learn to relate them to issues in Canadian society and the wider world. Students will use critical-thinking and communication skills to analyze legal issues, conduct independent research, and present the results of their inquiries in a variety of ways.
Pre-Requisite: Any University or college course in Canadian & World studies or social science

Analyzing Current Economic Issues, Grade 12, CIA4U
This course investigates the nature of the competitive global economy and explores how
individuals and societies can gain the information they need to make appropriate economic decisions. Students will learn about the principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics, apply economic models and concepts to interpret economic information, assess the validity of statistics, and investigate marketplace dynamics. Students will use economic inquiry and communication skills to analyze current economic issues, make informed judgments, and present their findings. Pre-Requisite: Any University or college course in business or Canadian & World studies

Canadian & World Issues: A Geographic Analysis, Grade 12, University Prep CGW4U
This course examines the global challenges of creating a sustainable and equitable future, focusing on current issues that illustrate these challenges. Students will investigate a range of topics, including cultural, economic, and geopolitical relationships, regional disparities in the ability to meet basic human needs, and protection of the natural environment. Students will use geotechnologies and skills of geographic inquiry and analysis to develop and communicate balanced opinions about the complex issues facing Canada and a world that is interdependent and constantly changing. Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English, or social sciences and humanities

Nutrition & Health, Grade 12, University Prep HFA4U
This course examines various nutritional, psychological, social, cultural, and global factors that influence people’s food choices and customs. Students will learn about current Canadian and worldwide issues related to food, frameworks for making appropriate dietary choices, and food-preparation techniques. This course also refines students’ skills used in researching and investigating issues related to food and nutrition.
Prerequisite: Any university, university/college, or college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies

Families in Canada, Grade 12, University Prep HHS4U
This course applies current theories and research from the disciplines of anthropology, psychology, and sociology to the study of individual development, family behavior, intimate and parent–child relationships, and the ways in which families interact within the diverse Canadian society. Students will learn the interpersonal skills required to contribute to the well-being of families, and the investigative skills required to conduct and evaluate research about individuals and families.
Prerequisite: Any university, university/college, or college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies

Issues in Human Growth and Development, Grade 12, University/College Prep HHG4M
This course offers a multidisciplinary approach to the study of human development throughout the life cycle, with particular emphasis on enhancing growth and development. Students will examine how early brain and child development are linked to lifelong learning, health, and well-being, and will develop child-care and human-relationship skills through practical experience in a community setting. This course also refines students’ skills used in researching and investigating issues related to human growth and development.
Prerequisite: Any university, university/college, or college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies

Challenge & Change in Society, Grade 12, University Prep HSB4U
This course examines the theories and methodologies used in anthropology, psychology, and sociology to investigate and explain shifts in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior and their impact on society. Students will analyze cultural, social, and biological patterns in human societies, looking at the ways in which those patterns change over time. Students will also explore the ideas of classical and contemporary social theorists, and will apply those ideas to the analysis of contemporary trends. Prerequisite: Any university, university/college, or college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies

English University Preparation, Grade 12, ENG4U
This course emphasizes the consolidation of the literacy, communication, and critical and creative thinking skills necessary for success in academic and daily life. Students will analyze a range of challenging literary texts from various periods, countries, and cultures; interpret and evaluate informational and graphic texts; and create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms. An important focus will be on using academic language coherently and confidently, selecting the reading strategies best suited to particular texts and particular purposes for reading, and developing greater control in writing. The course is intended to prepare students for university, college, or the workplace. Pre-Requisite: ENG3U

English College Preparation, Grade 12, ENG4C
This course emphasizes the consolidation of literacy, communication, and critical and creative thinking skills necessary for success in academic and daily life. Students will analyze a variety of informational and graphic texts, as well as literary texts from various countries and cultures, and create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms for practical and academic purposes. An important focus will be on using language with precision and clarity and developing greater control in writing. The course is intended to prepare students for college or the workplace. Pre-Requisite: ENG3C

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Course, Grade 12, Open, OLC4O
This course is designed to help students acquire and demonstrate the cross-curricular literacy skills that are evaluated by the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT). Students who complete the course successfully will meet the provincial literacy requirement for graduation. Students will read a variety of informational, narrative, and graphic texts and will produce a variety of forms of writing, including summaries, information paragraphs, opinion pieces, and news reports. Students will also maintain and manage a portfolio containing a record of their reading experiences and samples of their writing.
Prerequisite: Eligibility requirement: Students who have been eligible to write the OSSLT at least twice and who have been unsuccessful at least once are eligible to take the course. (Students who have already met the literacy requirement for graduation may be eligible to take the course under special circumstances, at the discretion of the principal.)

English as a Second Language
Beginning Communication in English, ESLAO
This course builds on students’ previous education and language knowledge to introduce them to the English language and help them adjust to the diversity in their new environment. Students will use beginning English language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing for everyday and essential academic purposes. They will engage in short conversations using basic English language structures and simple sentence patterns; read short adapted texts; and write phrases and short sentences. The course also provides students with the knowledge and skills they need to begin to adapt to their new lives in Canada. Pre-Requisite: None

English in Daily Life, ESLBO
This course extends students’ listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in English for everyday and academic purposes. Students will participate in conversations in structured situations on a variety of familiar and new topics; read a variety of texts designed or adapted for English language learners; expand their knowledge of English grammatical structures and sentence patterns; and link English sentences to compose paragraphs. The course also supports students’ continuing adaptation to the Ontario school system by expanding their knowledge of diversity in their new province and country.
Pre-Requisite: ESLAO or equivalent

English for School and Work, ESLCO
This course further extends students’ skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing in English for a variety of everyday and academic purposes. Students will make short classroom oral presentations; read a variety of adapted and original texts in English; and write using a variety of text forms. As well, students will expand their academic vocabulary and their study skills to facilitate their transition to the mainstream school program. This course also introduces students to the rights and responsibilities inherent in Canadian citizenship, and to a variety of current Canadian issues. Pre-Requisite: ESLBO or equivalent

Study Skills in English, ESLDO
This course prepares students to use English with increasing fluency and accuracy in classroom and social situations and to participate in Canadian society as informed citizens. Students will develop the oral-presentation, reading, and writing skills required for success in all school subjects. They will extend listening and speaking skills through participation in discussions and seminars; study and interpret a variety of grade-level texts; write narratives, articles, and summaries in English; and respond critically to a variety of print and media texts. Pre-Requisite: ESLCO or equivalent

Bridge to English, ESLEO
This course provides students with the skills and strategies they need to make the transition to college and university preparation courses in English and other secondary school disciplines. Students will be encouraged to develop independence in a range of academic tasks. They will participate in debates and lead classroom workshops; read and interpret literary works and academic texts; write essays, narratives, and reports; and apply a range of learning strategies and research skills effectively. Students will further develop their ability to respond critically to print and media texts. Pre-Requisite: ESLDO or equivalent

Advanced Functions, Grade 12 University Prep, MHF4U
This course extends students’ experience with functions. Students will investigate the properties of polynomial, rational, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; develop techniques for combining functions; broaden their understanding of rates of change; and develop facility in applying these concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended both for students taking the Calculus and Vectors course as a prerequisite for a university program and for those wishing to consolidate their understanding of mathematics before proceeding to any one of a variety of university programs. Pre-Requisite: MCR3U

Mathematics of Data Management, Grade 12 University Prep, MDM4U
This course broadens students’ understanding of mathematics as it relates to managing data. Students will apply methods for organizing and analyzing large amounts of information; solve problems involving probability and statistics; and carry out a culminating investigation that integrates statistical concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. Students planning to enter university programs in business, the social sciences, and the humanities will find this course of particular interest. Pre-Requisite: MCF3M/MCR3U

Calculus & vectors, Grade 12 University Prep, MCV4U
This course builds on students’ previous experience with functions and their developing understanding of rates of change. Students will solve problems involving geometric and algebraic representations of vectors and representations of lines and planes in three-dimensional space; broaden their understanding of rates of change to include the derivatives of polynomial, sinusoidal, exponential, rational, and radical functions; and apply these concepts and skills to the modeling of real-world relationships. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended for students who choose to pursue careers in fields such as science, engineering, economics, and some areas of business, including those students who will be required to take a university-level calculus, linear algebra, or physics course. Pre-Requisite: MCR3U, Co-requisite: MHF4U

College & Apprenticeship Math, Grade 12, College Prep MAP4C
This course enables students to broaden their understanding of real-world applications of mathematics. Students will analyze data using statistical methods; solve problems involving applications of geometry and trigonometry; solve financial problems connected with annuities, budgets, and renting or owning accommodation; simplify expressions; and solve equations. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems. This course prepares students for college programs in areas such as business, health sciences, and human services, and for certain skilled trades. Pre-Requisite: MBF3C, MCF3M, MCR3U

Mathematics For College Technology, Grade 12 College Prep, MCT4C
This course enables students to extend their knowledge of functions. Students will investigate and apply properties of polynomial, exponential, and trigonometric functions; continue to represent functions numerically, graphically, and algebraically; develop facility in simplifying expressions and solving equations; and solve problems that address applications of algebra, trigonometry, vectors, and geometry. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems. This course prepares students for a variety of college technology programs. Pre-Requisite: MBF3C, MCF3M, MCR3U

Physics, Grade 12, University Prep, SPH4U
This course enables students to deepen their understanding of physics concepts and theories. Students will continue their exploration of energy transformations and the forces that affect motion, and will investigate electrical, gravitational, and magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation. Students will also explore the wave nature of light, quantum mechanics, and special relativity. They will further develop their scientific investigation skills, learning, for example, how to analyze, qualitatively and quantitatively, data related to a variety of physics concepts and principles. Students will also consider the impact of technological applications of physics on society and the environment. Pre-Requisite: SPH3U

Biology, Grade 12, University Prep, SBI4U
This course provides students with the opportunity for in-depth study of the concepts and
processes that occur in biological systems. Students will study theory and conduct investigations in the areas of biochemistry, metabolic processes, molecular genetics, homeostasis, and population dynamics. Emphasis will be placed on the achievement of detailed knowledge and the refinement of skills needed for further study in various branches of the life sciences and related fields. Pre-Requisite: SBI3U

Chemistry, Grade 12, University Prep, SCH4U
This course enables students to deepen their understanding of chemistry through the study of organic chemistry, the structure and properties of matter, energy changes and rates of reaction, equilibrium in chemical systems, and electrochemistry. Students will further develop their problem-solving and investigation skills as they investigate chemical processes, and will refine their ability to communicate scientific information. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of chemistry in everyday life and on evaluating the impact of chemical technology on the environment. Pre-Requisite: SCH3U

Science, Grade 12 University/College Preparation, SNC4M
This course enables students, including those pursuing postsecondary programs outside the sciences, to increase their understanding of science and contemporary social and environmental issues in health-related fields. Students will explore a variety of medical technologies, pathogens and disease, nutritional science, public health issues, and biotechnology. The course focuses on the theoretical aspects of the topics under study and helps refine students’ scientific investigation skills. Pre-Requisite: Grade 10 Science, Academic, or any Grade 11 university, university/college, or college preparation course in science

Earth & space science, Grade 12, University Prep, SES4U
This course develops students’ understanding of Earth and its place in the universe. Students will investigate the properties of and forces in the universe and solar system and analyze techniques scientists use to generate knowledge about them. Students will closely examine the materials of Earth, its internal and surficial processes, and its geological history, and will learn how Earth’s systems interact and how they have changed over time. Throughout the course, students will learn how these forces, processes, and materials affect their daily lives. The course draws on biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics in its consideration of geological and astronomical processes that can be observed directly or inferred from other evidence. Pre-Requisite: SNC2D

Exercise Science, Grade 12, University Prep PSE4U
This course focuses on the study of human movement and of systems, factors, and principles involved in human development. Students will learn about the effects of physical activity on health and performance, the evolution of physical activity and sports, and the factors that influence an individual’s participation in physical activity. The course prepares students for university programs in physical education, kinesiology, recreation, and sports administration. Prerequisite: Any Grade 11 university or university/college preparation course in science, or any Grade 11 or 12 open course in health and physical education

Information Technology in Business, Grade 12, College Prep, BTX4C
This course provides students with the opportunity to apply their information and communication technology skills while working in a team environment. Through a project-based approach, students will have opportunities to integrate common business software applications and apply multimedia techniques. Students will further develop their understanding of electronic business and e-commerce environments. The skills acquired in this course will prepare students for success in postsecondary studies and in their future careers. Pre-Requisite: BTA3O

Computer & Information Science, Grade 12 University Prep, ICS4U
This course enables students to further develop knowledge and skills in computer science. Students will use modular design principles to create complex and fully documented programs, according to industry standards. Student teams will manage a large software development project, from planning through to project review. Students will also analyze algorithms for effectiveness. They will investigate ethical issues in computing and further explore environmental issues, emerging technologies, areas of research in computer science, and careers in the field. Pre-Requisite: ICS3M